Delayed targeting of CD39 to activated platelet GPIIb/IIIa via a single-chain antibody: breaking the link between antithrombotic potency and bleeding?
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The ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase CD39 represents a promising antithrombotic therapeutic. It degrades adenosine 5 -diphosphate (ADP), a main platelet activating/recruiting agent. We hypothesized that delayed enrichment of CD39 on developing thrombi will allow for a low and safe systemic concentration and thus avoid bleeding. We use a single-chain antibody (scFv, specific for activated GPIIb/IIIa) for targeting CD39. This should allow delayed enrichment on growing thrombi but not on the initial sealing layer of platelets, which do not yet express activated GPIIb/IIIa. CD39 was recombinantly fused to an activated GPIIb/IIIa-specific scFv (targ-CD39) and a nonfunctional scFv (non-targ-CD39). Targ-CD39 was more effective at preventing ADP-induced platelet activation than non-targ-CD39. In a mouse carotid artery thrombosis model, non-targ-CD39, although protective against vessel occlusion, was associated with significant bleeding on tail transection. In contrast, targ-CD39 concentrated at the thrombus site; hence, a dose 10 times less of CD39 prevented vessel occlusion to a similar extent as high-dose non-targ-CD39, without prolonged bleeding time. An equimolar dose of non-targ-CD39 at this low concentration was ineffective at preventing vessel occlusion. Thus, delayed targeting of CD39 via scFv to activated platelets provides strong antithrombotic potency and yet prevents bleeding and thereby promotes CD39 toward clinical use.
Hohmann, J. D., Wang, X., Krajewski, S., Selan, C., Haller, C. A., Straub, A., Chaikof, E. L., Nandurkar, H. H., Hagemeyer, C. E., & Peter, K. (2013). Delayed targeting of CD39 to activated platelet GPIIb/IIIa via a single-chain antibody: breaking the link between antithrombotic potency and bleeding? Blood, 121(16), 3067 - 3075. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2012-08-449694