Delayed intervention with AGE inhibitors attenuates the progression of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetic apolipoprotein E knockout mice

Anna Watson, A Soro-Paavonen, K Sheehy, J. Li, A C Calkin, A Koitka, S N Rajan, D. Brasacchio, T. J. Allen, M. E. Cooper, M. C. Thomas, K. J. A. Jandeleit-Dahm

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AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Formation of AGEs is increased in the diabetic milieu, which contributes to accelerated atherogenesis. We studied whether delayed treatment with AGE-inhibiting compounds, alagebrium chloride and pyridoxamine dihydrochloride, affected established atherosclerosis in experimental diabetes in comparison with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, quinapril. METHODS:Streptozotocin-induced diabetic male Apoe (-/-) mice (n = 24 per group) received, by oral gavage, from week 10 to 20 of diabetes: no treatment; alagebrium (1 mg kg(-1) day(-1)); pyridoxamine (1 g/l in drinking water); or quinapril (30 mg kg(-1) day(-1)). Atherosclerotic lesion area (en face analysis) was evaluated for all groups.RESULTS:Delayed intervention with alagebrium decreased plaque area in the diabetic Apoe (-/-) mice compared with untreated mice (total plaque area: alagebrium 10.6 ± 1.6%, untreated, 15.1 ± 1.5%, p < 0.05). This anti-atherosclerotic effect was comparable with that achieved with quinapril (quinapril 8.4 ± 1.4%, vs untreated, p < 0.05). Pyridoxamine also attenuated plaque development in diabetic mice (5.7 ± 1.2% vs untreated 11.9 ± 1.1%, p < 0.05). The anti-atherosclerotic effect conferred by alagebrium and quinapril was associated with a significant reduction in vascular oxidative stress and circulating AGEs and methylglyoxal, although preformed AGEs were not removed from the vascular wall with either delayed intervention. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Inhibition of AGE accumulation, using a delayed intervention with alagebrium or pyridoxamine, significantly attenuated the progression of established diabetes-associated atherosclerosis, similar to results obtained with quinapril. These findings provide further evidence that blockade of AGE-mediated pathways may present a novel therapy for the prevention of atherosclerosis in diabetes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)681-689
Number of pages9
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011


  • ACE inhibition
  • Alagebrium
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Mouse model
  • Pyridoxamine

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