Defective lysosome reformation during autophagy causes skeletal muscle disease

Meagan J. McGrath, Matthew J. Eramo, Rajendra Gurung, Absorn Sriratana, Stefan M. Gehrig, Gordon S. Lynch, Sonia Raveena Lourdes, Frank Koentgen, Sandra J. Feeney, Michael Lazarou, Catriona A. McLean, Christina A. Mitchell

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The regulation of autophagy-dependent lysosome homeostasis in vivo is unclear. We showed that the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase INPP5K regulates autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR), a lysosome recycling pathway, in muscle. INPP5K hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P], and INPP5K mutations cause muscular dystrophy by unknown mechanisms. We report that loss of INPP5K in muscle caused severe disease, autophagy inhibition, and lysosome depletion. Reduced PI(4,5)P2 turnover on autolysosomes in Inpp5k-/- muscle suppressed autophagy and lysosome repopulation via ALR inhibition. Defective ALR in Inpp5k-/- myoblasts was characterized by enlarged autolysosomes and the persistence of hyperextended reformation tubules, structures that participate in membrane recycling to form lysosomes. Reduced disengagement of the PI(4,5)P2 effector clathrin was observed on reformation tubules, which we propose interfered with ALR completion. Inhibition of PI(4,5)P2 synthesis or expression of WT INPP5K but not INPP5K disease mutants in INPP5K-depleted myoblasts restored lysosomal homeostasis. Therefore, bidirectional interconversion of PI(4)P/PI(4,5)P2 on autolysosomes was integral to lysosome replenishment and autophagy function in muscle. Activation of TFEB-dependent de novo lysosome biogenesis did not compensate for loss of ALR in Inpp5k-/- muscle, revealing a dependence on this lysosome recycling pathway. Therefore, in muscle, ALR is indispensable for lysosome homeostasis during autophagy and when defective is associated with muscular dystrophy.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere135124
Number of pages16
JournalThe Journal of Clinical Investigation
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jan 2021

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