An (improper) graph colouring has defect d if each monochromatic subgraph has maximum degree at most d, and has clustering c if each monochromatic component has at most c vertices. This paper studies defective and clustered list-colourings for graphs with given maximum average degree. We prove that every graph with maximum average degree less than (2d+2)/(d+2)k is k-choosable with defect d. This improves upon a similar result by Havet and Sereni (J. Graph Theory, 2006). For clustered choosability of graphs with maximum average degree m, no (1-ϵ)m bound on the number of colours was previously known. The above result with d=1 solves this problem. It implies that every graph with maximum average degree m is -choosable with clustering 2. This extends a result of Kopreski and Yu (Discrete Math., 2017) to the setting of choosability. We then prove two results about clustered choosability that explore the trade-off between the number of colours and the clustering. In particular, we prove that every graph with maximum average degree m is -choosable with clustering 9, and is -choosable with clustering O(m). As an example, the later result implies that every biplanar graph is 8-choosable with bounded clustering. This is the best known result for the clustered version of the earth-moon problem. The results extend to the setting where we only consider the maximum average degree of subgraphs with at least some number of vertices. Several applications are presented.
- 2010 MSC Codes:
- Primary 05C15