DeepGauge: multi-granularity testing criteria for deep learning systems

Lei Ma, Felix Juefei-Xu, Fuyuan Zhang, Jiyuan Sun, Minhui Xue, Bo Li, Chunyang Chen, Ting Su, Li Li, Yang Liu, Jianjun Zhao, Yadong Wang

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperResearchpeer-review

118 Citations (Scopus)


Deep learning (DL) defines a new data-driven programming paradigm that constructs the internal system logic of a crafted neuron network through a set of training data. We have seen wide adoption of DL in many safety-critical scenarios. However, a plethora of studies have shown that the state-of-the-art DL systems suffer from various vulnerabilities which can lead to severe consequences when applied to real-world applications. Currently, the testing adequacy of a DL system is usually measured by the accuracy of test data. Considering the limitation of accessible high quality test data, good accuracy performance on test data can hardly provide confidence to the testing adequacy and generality of DL systems. Unlike traditional software systems that have clear and controllable logic and functionality, the lack of interpretability in a DL system makes system analysis and defect detection difficult, which could potentially hinder its real-world deployment. In this paper, we propose DeepGauge, a set of multi-granularity testing criteria for DL systems, which aims at rendering a multi-faceted portrayal of the testbed. The in-depth evaluation of our proposed testing criteria is demonstrated on two well-known datasets, five DL systems, and with four state-of-the-art adversarial attack techniques against DL. The potential usefulness of DeepGauge sheds light on the construction of more generic and robust DL systems.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationASE'18 - Proceedings of the 33rd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Automated Software Engineering
Subtitle of host publicationSeptember 3–7, 2018 Montpellier, France
EditorsGordon Fraser, Christian Kastner
Place of PublicationNew York NY USA
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9781450359375
Publication statusPublished - 2018
EventAutomated Software Engineering Conference 2018 - Corum Conference Center, Montpellier, France
Duration: 3 Sep 20187 Sep 2018
Conference number: 33rd (Conference website) (Proceedings)


ConferenceAutomated Software Engineering Conference 2018
Abbreviated titleASE 2018
Internet address


  • Deep learning
  • Deep neural networks
  • Software testing
  • Testing criteria

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