Decentralized optimized integral sliding mode-based load frequency control for interconnected multi-area power systems

Hassan Haes Alhelou, Neelu Nagpal, Neelam Kassarwani, Pierluigi Siano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, a decentralized load frequency control (LFC) is proposed for the frequency regulation of multi-area power systems applying optimized integral sliding mode control (OISMC) scheme. A modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) algorithm is utilised to optimize the control variables of the proposed controller for improving the performance of frequency response. A comprehensive model of a multi-area power system is developed where each area is considered to power from conventional sources, renewable energy resources (RERs), and electrical vehicle (EV) aggregators. Different types of interconnectors have been considered to tie different power regions. This system is subjected to random generation and loading conditions, as well as model uncertainties, which cause its frequency and area control error (ACE) to deviate from their nominal values. A decentralised OISMC is implemented for the proposed model to keep the frequency variation within the nominal range. Further, a validation study investigates the performance of the proposed control technique in MATLAB simulation environment to mimic the real power system operation. This study includes different test scenarios considering the dynamic events such as variations in load demand, amount of generated power, participation factor of EV reserve, system parameters, disturbances, and time delay. The simulated results support better frequency regulation with the suggested OISMC compared to other alternative control approaches.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32296-32307
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Area control error
  • integral sliding mode control
  • load frequency control
  • optimized control variables
  • secondary control

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