Δ-Myrtoxin-Mp1a (Mp1a), a 49-residue heterodimeric peptide from the venom of Myrmecia pilosula, comprises a 26-mer A chain and a 23-mer B chain connected by two disulfide bonds in an antiparallel arrangement. Combination of the individual synthetic chains through aerial oxidation remarkably resulted in the self-assembly of Mp1a as a homogenous product without the need for directed disulfide-bond formation. NMR analysis revealed a well-defined, unique structure containing an antiparallel α-helix pair. Dual polarization interferometry (DPI) analysis showed strong interaction with supported lipid bilayers and insertion within the bilayers. Mp1a caused non-specific Ca2+ influx in SH-SY5Y cells with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 4.3 μm. Mp1a also displayed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, with the highest potency against Gram-negative Acinetobacter baumannii (MIC 25 nm). Intraplantar injection (10 μm) in mice elicited spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia. Single- and two-chain mimetics of Mp1a revealed functional selectivity.
- antimicrobial peptides
- nociceptive pain