Cytokine and lipid metabolome effects of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid in critically ill patients with systemic inflammation: a pilot, feasibility, multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial

Luca Cioccari, Nora Luethi, Thy Duong, Eileen Ryan, Salvatore L. Cutuli, Patryck Lloyd-Donald, Glenn M. Eastwood, Leah Peck, Helen Young, Suvi T. Vaara, Craig J. French, Neil Orford, Jyotsna Dwivedi, Yugeesh R. Lankadeva, Michael Bailey, Gavin E. Reid, Rinaldo Bellomo

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a dysregulated response that contributes to critical illness. Adjunctive acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatment may offer beneficial effects by increasing the synthesis of specialised proresolving mediators (a subset of polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived lipid mediators). DESIGN: Pilot, feasibility, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Four interdisciplinary intensive care units (ICUs) in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Critically ill patients with SIRS. INTERVENTIONS: ASA 100 mg 12-hourly or placebo, administered within 24 hours of ICU admission and continued until ICU day 7, discharge or death, whichever came first. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) serum concentration at 48 hours after randomisation and, in a prespecified subgroup of patients, serum lipid mediator concentrations measured by mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The trial was discontinued in December 2017 due to slow recruitment and after the inclusion of 48 patients. Compared with placebo, ASA did not decrease IL-6 serum concentration at 48 hours. In the 32 patients with analysis of lipid mediators, low-dose ASA increased the concentration of 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, a proresolving precursor of lipoxin A4, and reduced the concentration of the proinflammatory cytochrome P-dependent mediators 17-HETE (hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid), 18-HETE and 20-HETE. In the eicosapentaenoic acid pathway, ASA significantly increased the concentration of the anti-inflammatory mediators 17,18-DiHETE (dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) and 14,15-DiHETE. CONCLUSIONS: In ICU patients with SIRS, low-dose ASA did not significantly alter serum IL-6 concentrations, but it did affect plasma concentrations of certain lipid mediators. The ability to measure lipid mediators in clinical samples and to monitor the effect of ASA on their levels unlocks a potential area of biological investigation in critical care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN 12614001165673).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)227-236
Number of pages10
JournalCritical care and resuscitation : journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
Volume22
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2020

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