Cytochrome P450 2C9-natural antiarthritic interactions: Evaluation of inhibition magnitude and prediction from in vitro data

Boon Hooi Tan, Nafees Ahemad, Yan Pan, Uma Devi Palanisamy, Iekhsan Othman, Beow Chin Yiap, Chin Eng Ong

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6 Citations (Scopus)


Many dietary supplements are promoted to patients with osteoarthritis (OA) including the three naturally derived compounds, glucosamine, chondroitin and diacerein. Despite their wide spread use, research on interaction of these antiarthritic compounds with human hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes is limited. This study aimed to examine the modulatory effects of these compounds on CYP2C9, a major CYP isoform, using in vitro biochemical assay and in silico models. Utilizing valsartan hydroxylase assay as probe, all forms of glucosamine and chondroitin exhibited IC50 values beyond 1000 μM, indicating very weak potential in inhibiting CYP2C9. In silico docking postulated no interaction with CYP2C9 for chondroitin and weak bonding for glucosamine. On the other hand, diacerein exhibited mixed-type inhibition with IC50 value of 32.23 μM and Ki value of 30.80 μM, indicating moderately weak inhibition. Diacerein's main metabolite, rhein, demonstrated the same mode of inhibition as diacerein but stronger potency, with IC50 of 6.08 μM and Ki of 1.16 μM. The docking of both compounds acquired lower CDOCKER interaction energy values, with interactions dominated by hydrogen and hydrophobic bondings. The ranking with respect to inhibition potency for the investigated compounds was generally the same in both in vitro enzyme assay and in silico modeling with order of potency being diacerein/rhein > various glucosamine/chondroitin forms. In vitro-in vivo extrapolation of inhibition kinetics (using 1 + [I]/Ki ratio) demonstrated negligible potential of diacerein to cause interaction in vivo, whereas rhein was predicted to cause in vivo interaction, suggesting potential interaction risk with the CYP2C9 drug substrates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)205-217
Number of pages13
JournalBiopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2018


  • chondroitin
  • cytochrome P450 2C9
  • diacerein
  • drug interaction
  • glucosamine
  • rhein

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