Functional drug carrier systems have potential for increasing solubility and potency of drugs while reducing side effects. Complex polymeric materials, particularly anisotropic structures, are especially attractive due to their long circulation times. Here, we have conjugated cyclic peptides to the biocompatible polymer poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide) (pHPMA). The resulting conjugates were functionalized with organoiridium anticancer complexes. Small angle neutron scattering and static light scattering confirmed their self-assembly and elongated cylindrical shape. Drug-loaded nanotubes exhibited more potent antiproliferative activity toward human cancer cells than either free drug or the drug-loaded polymers, while the nanotubes themselves were nontoxic. Cellular accumulation studies revealed that the increased potency of the conjugate appears to be related to a more efficient mode of action rather than a higher cellular accumulation of iridium.