Preclinical studies show that stroma affects sensitivity of prostate cancer cells via activation of the CXCR4/CXCL12 pathway. Here we studied the effect of CXCR4 inhibition combined with irradiation in prostate cancer cells. In an in vitro co-culture with stromal cells, the CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100 sensitized prostate cancer cell lines PC3-Luc and LNCaP to irradiation (P = 0.04). Tumor growth and metastasis were evaluated in mice xenografted with luciferase-expressing PC3 cells that received 5 Gy irradiation weekly ± 3.5 mg/kg AMD3100 daily intraperitoneally. The irradiated xenografts showed higher CXCR4 (P = 0.006) and CXCL12 (P = 0.01) expression, compared to controls. AMD3100 sensitized the xenografts to irradiation at the fourth week of treatment (P = 0.02). However AMD3100 also mobilized tumor cells at days 14 and 21 (P < 0.0001), as shown by bioluminescent imaging. In conclusion, AMD3100 transiently enhances prostate cancer radiosensitivity, but induces cancer cell mobilization.
- Tumor cell mobilization