Current understanding of hypospadias: relevance of animal models

Gerald R Cunha, Adriane Sinclair, Gail P Risbridger, John Hutson, Laurence S Baskin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Hypospadias is a congenital abnormality of the penile urethra with an incidence of approximately 1:200-1:300 male births, which has doubled over the past three decades. The aetiology of the overwhelming majority of hypospadias remains unknown but appears to be a combination of genetic susceptibility and prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors. Reliable animal models of hypospadias are required for better understanding of the mechanisms of normal penile urethral formation and hence hypospadias. Mice and/or rats are generally used for experimental modelling of hypospadias, however these do not fully reflect the human condition. To use these models successfully, researchers must understand the similarities and differences between mouse, rat and human penile anatomy as well as the normal morphogenetic mechanisms of penile development in these species. Despite some important differences, numerous features of animal and human hypospadias are shared: the prevalence of distal penile malformations; disruption of the urethral meatus; disruption of urethra-associated erectile bodies; and a common mechanism of impaired epithelial fusion events. Rat and mouse models of hypospadias are crucial to our understanding of hypospadias to ultimately reduce its incidence through better preventive strategies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)271 - 280
Number of pages10
JournalNature Reviews Urology
Volume12
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Cite this

Cunha, Gerald R ; Sinclair, Adriane ; Risbridger, Gail P ; Hutson, John ; Baskin, Laurence S. / Current understanding of hypospadias: relevance of animal models. In: Nature Reviews Urology. 2015 ; Vol. 12, No. 5. pp. 271 - 280.
@article{c88a9218df9444f2866a54268852f63c,
title = "Current understanding of hypospadias: relevance of animal models",
abstract = "Hypospadias is a congenital abnormality of the penile urethra with an incidence of approximately 1:200-1:300 male births, which has doubled over the past three decades. The aetiology of the overwhelming majority of hypospadias remains unknown but appears to be a combination of genetic susceptibility and prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors. Reliable animal models of hypospadias are required for better understanding of the mechanisms of normal penile urethral formation and hence hypospadias. Mice and/or rats are generally used for experimental modelling of hypospadias, however these do not fully reflect the human condition. To use these models successfully, researchers must understand the similarities and differences between mouse, rat and human penile anatomy as well as the normal morphogenetic mechanisms of penile development in these species. Despite some important differences, numerous features of animal and human hypospadias are shared: the prevalence of distal penile malformations; disruption of the urethral meatus; disruption of urethra-associated erectile bodies; and a common mechanism of impaired epithelial fusion events. Rat and mouse models of hypospadias are crucial to our understanding of hypospadias to ultimately reduce its incidence through better preventive strategies.",
author = "Cunha, {Gerald R} and Adriane Sinclair and Risbridger, {Gail P} and John Hutson and Baskin, {Laurence S}",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1038/nrurol.2015.57",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
pages = "271 -- 280",
journal = "Nature Clinical Practice Urology",
issn = "1759-4812",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "5",

}

Current understanding of hypospadias: relevance of animal models. / Cunha, Gerald R; Sinclair, Adriane; Risbridger, Gail P; Hutson, John; Baskin, Laurence S.

In: Nature Reviews Urology, Vol. 12, No. 5, 2015, p. 271 - 280.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Current understanding of hypospadias: relevance of animal models

AU - Cunha, Gerald R

AU - Sinclair, Adriane

AU - Risbridger, Gail P

AU - Hutson, John

AU - Baskin, Laurence S

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Hypospadias is a congenital abnormality of the penile urethra with an incidence of approximately 1:200-1:300 male births, which has doubled over the past three decades. The aetiology of the overwhelming majority of hypospadias remains unknown but appears to be a combination of genetic susceptibility and prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors. Reliable animal models of hypospadias are required for better understanding of the mechanisms of normal penile urethral formation and hence hypospadias. Mice and/or rats are generally used for experimental modelling of hypospadias, however these do not fully reflect the human condition. To use these models successfully, researchers must understand the similarities and differences between mouse, rat and human penile anatomy as well as the normal morphogenetic mechanisms of penile development in these species. Despite some important differences, numerous features of animal and human hypospadias are shared: the prevalence of distal penile malformations; disruption of the urethral meatus; disruption of urethra-associated erectile bodies; and a common mechanism of impaired epithelial fusion events. Rat and mouse models of hypospadias are crucial to our understanding of hypospadias to ultimately reduce its incidence through better preventive strategies.

AB - Hypospadias is a congenital abnormality of the penile urethra with an incidence of approximately 1:200-1:300 male births, which has doubled over the past three decades. The aetiology of the overwhelming majority of hypospadias remains unknown but appears to be a combination of genetic susceptibility and prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors. Reliable animal models of hypospadias are required for better understanding of the mechanisms of normal penile urethral formation and hence hypospadias. Mice and/or rats are generally used for experimental modelling of hypospadias, however these do not fully reflect the human condition. To use these models successfully, researchers must understand the similarities and differences between mouse, rat and human penile anatomy as well as the normal morphogenetic mechanisms of penile development in these species. Despite some important differences, numerous features of animal and human hypospadias are shared: the prevalence of distal penile malformations; disruption of the urethral meatus; disruption of urethra-associated erectile bodies; and a common mechanism of impaired epithelial fusion events. Rat and mouse models of hypospadias are crucial to our understanding of hypospadias to ultimately reduce its incidence through better preventive strategies.

UR - http://www.nature.com/nrurol/journal/v12/n5/full/nrurol.2015.57.html

U2 - 10.1038/nrurol.2015.57

DO - 10.1038/nrurol.2015.57

M3 - Article

VL - 12

SP - 271

EP - 280

JO - Nature Clinical Practice Urology

JF - Nature Clinical Practice Urology

SN - 1759-4812

IS - 5

ER -