Current Targets and Future Directions of Positive Inotropes for Heart Failure

Shadreen Fairuz (Leading Author), Ang Chee Wei, Fatima Mraiche, Goh Joo Kheng, Emily

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review


While a congestive heart failure patient will ultimately need an assist device or even a replacement heart as the disease progresses, not every patient is qualified for such advanced therapy. Such patients awaiting better circulatory support benefit from positive inotropes in the meantime as palliative care. These agents are often prescribed in patients with acute decompensated heart failure, with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and symptoms of organ dysfunction. Although positive inotropes, for example, digoxin, dobutamine, milrinone, levosimendan, etc., are successfully marketed and in use, a lot of their adverse effects, like arrhythmias, hypotension, and even sudden cardiac death, are rather encouraging further research on the development of novel positive inotropes. This review has investigated the molecular mechanisms of some of these adverse effects in terms of the proteins they target, followed by research on newer targets. Studies from 2013-2023 that have reported new small molecules with positive inotropic effects have been revisited in order to determine the progress made so far in drug discovery.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages21
JournalCurrent Medicinal Chemistry
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 31 Oct 2023

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