Current and future nanoparticle vaccines for COVID-19

Mai N. Vu, Hannah G. Kelly, Stephen J. Kent, Adam K. Wheatley

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

49 Citations (Scopus)


COVID-19 has become a major cause of global mortality and driven massive health and economic disruptions. Mass global vaccination offers the most efficient pathway towards ending the pandemic. The development and deployment of first-generation COVID-19 vaccines, encompassing mRNA or viral vectors, has proceeded at a phenomenal pace. Going forward, nanoparticle-based vaccines which deliver SARS-CoV-2 antigens will play an increasing role in extending or improving vaccination outcomes against COVID-19. At present, over 26 nanoparticle vaccine candidates have advanced into clinical testing, with ∼60 more in pre-clinical development. Here, we discuss the emerging promise of nanotechnology in vaccine design and manufacturing to combat SARS-CoV-2, and highlight opportunities and challenges presented by these novel vaccine platforms.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103699
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • COVID-19 vaccine
  • nanoparticle vaccine
  • neutralizing antibody
  • protein nanoparticle
  • SARS-CoV-2

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