Current and emerging MR imaging techniques for the diagnosis and management of CSF flow disorders: A review of phase-contrast and time-spatial labeling inversion pulse

S. Yamada, K. Tsuchiya, W. G. Bradley, M. Law, M. L. Winkler, M. T. Borzage, M. Miyazaki, E. J. Kelly, J. G. McComb

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

65 Citations (Scopus)


This article provides an overview of phase-contrast and time-spatial labeling inversion pulse MR imaging techniques to assess CSF movement in the CNS under normal and pathophysiologic situations. Phase-contrast can quantitatively measure stroke volume in selected regions, notably the aqueduct of Sylvius, synchronized to the heartbeat. Judicious fine-tuning of the technique is needed to achieve maximal temporal resolution, and it has limited visualization of CSF motion in many CNS regions. Phase-contrast is frequently used to evaluate those patients with suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus and a Chiari I malformation. Correlation with successful treatment outcome has been problematic. Time-spatial labeling inversion pulse, with a high signal-to-noise ratio, assesses linear and turbulent motion of CSF anywhere in the CNS. Time-spatial labeling inversion pulse can qualitatively visualize whether CSF flows between 2 compartments and determine whether there is flow through the aqueduct of Sylvius or a new surgically created stoma. Cine images reveal CSF linear and turbulent flow patterns.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)623-630
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Neuroradiology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015
Externally publishedYes

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