Cultural adaptation and validation of instruments for measuring the flipped classroom experience

Ronald F.S. Lee, Wei Jin Wong, Shaun W.H. Lee, Paul J. White, Tomomi Takeuchi, Benny Efendie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Introduction: In 2017, a revamped bachelor of pharmacy program was introduced at Monash University and incorporated a predominantly flipped classroom-based pedagogy. The attitudes and preferences of students towards this program had yet to be assessed using a reliable instrument. Since no instrument was readily available, the objective of this study was to identify, contextualize, and validate a suitable instrument. Methods: We conducted a literature search to identify and adapt a validated instrument. Cognitive interviews were conducted to examine students' understanding of scales and definitions of items. The instrument was then evaluated by education experts for further refinement. The reliability of the final instrument was assessed in a cohort of students, and unsuitable items were removed. Results: Students had issues understanding the scales and specific terms used in the original instrument, potentially due to differences in terminologies used in the university's context and variance in English proficiency levels and exposure. In the preference domain, wording of the instrument to present exclusively traditional classroom or exclusively flipped classroom statements greatly influenced its reliability. This could be due to exposure of students to a predominantly flipped classroom environment since inception. The final instrument optimized in this study had α = 0.85, 0.86, and 0.9 for the pre-activities, in-class lectures, and in-class workshops attitude domains, respectively, and α = 0.73 for the preference domain. Conclusions: Our study highlights the necessity of contextualizing instruments to fit the local context in which they are administered and provides key recommendations when conducting such adaptations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23-32
Number of pages10
JournalCurrents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • Active learning
  • Attitudes and preferences
  • Flipped classroom
  • Instrument validation and contextualization

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