Cultural accountability for business-practice differences and beyond: A comparative study on bank loan classification between japan and the USA

Kanji Kitamura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


The aim of this interdisciplinary essay is to demonstrate locally shared senses of values (“cultural values”) as the root causes of the cross-national differences in business practice between Japan and the USA; in particular bank loan classification and its value-driven consequences. For this aim, it investigates three levels of bank lending; decision-making at an individual level, bank loan classification at an organisation level and aggregate bank loans at a national level. The essay first examines the historical debate in economic anthropology, with the focus on cultural values. The second part explores research-proven differences in individualism and collectivism. The third part investigates the bank loan classification systems at an organisation level. The fourth part examines the CME-LMC distinction (Hall and Soskice 2001) as a culturally-driven dichotomy of how differently aggregate bank loans appear at a national level. The essay concludes that global frameworks need to accommodate value differences across the world.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4
JournalElectronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

Cite this