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The crust-mantle geodynamic origin of global late Archean granitoid diversification remains enigmatic. A series of early Neoarchean diversified granitoids were newly identified in the Jiaobei terrane of the North China Craton, including ~2749–2739 Ma Na-rich quartz dioritic, tonalitic, and trondhjemitic (DTTG) gneisses, and ~2718–2701 Ma K-rich quartz monzodioritic, granodioritic, and monzogranitic gneisses. The quartz dioritic and TTG gneisses commonly show transitional field relationships. They have low K2O/Na2O (0.19–0.59), and are characterized by decreasing MgO, FeOT, TiO2, P2O5, and CaO, changing Eu anomalies from negative to positive, and more fractionated REEs, with increasing SiO2. Both the quartz dioritic and TTG gneisses possess depleted zircon εHf(t2) values (+1.4 to + 7.0). Through quantitative petrogenetic modeling, a fractional crystallization model is invoked, i.e., the quartz dioritic gneisses were derived from partial melting of a depleted mantle source metasomatized by slab-derived melts, whereas TTG gneisses (a low silica and a high silica group) formed by different degrees of fractionation from the quartz dioritic magmas, with inferred liquidus minerals of hornblende, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, and apatite. In comparison, the K-rich granitoids show higher K2O/Na2O (0.69–2.87), with some containing euhedral muscovites. The quartz monzodioritic and granodioritic gneisses have higher MgO and Mg#, but lower Fe* (FeOT/(FeOT + MgO)) than the monzogranitic gneisses. The zircon εHf(t2) values (-0.5 to + 5.6) are lower than those of DTTG gneisses. It is suggested that these K-rich granitoids formed by partial melting of either a metasomatized mantle source (with recycled sediments) or metasedimentary rocks at diverse crustal levels. Early Neoarchean crust-mantle interactions of the Jiaobei terrane are reconstructed, including (1) earlier slab-mantle wedge interactions under a continental marginal arc, forming quartz dioritic and the derivative tonalitic and trondhjemitic rocks; (2) ongoing convergence led to high relief of the arc mountain, facilitating erosion and reworking/recycling of sediments; and (3) partial melting of coupled crust-mantle system following accretion between the above arc system and regional ~2.9 Ga or older continental nucleus generated different K-rich granitoids. It is emphasized that the construction and erosion of thickened arcs are prone to the formation of both high pressure TTGs and K-rich granitoids, leading to the late Archean granitoid diversification globally.
- Arc-continent accretion
- Construction and erosion of a thickened arc
- Crust-mantle interactions
- Early Neoarchean granitoid diversification
- Jiaobei terrane of North China Craton