Cross‐correlation wavelet‐domain‐based particle swarm optimization for lightning mapping

Ammar Alammari, Ammar Ahmed Alkahtani, Mohd Riduan Ahmad, Ahmed Aljanad, Fuad Noman, Zen Kawasaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


Several processing methods have been proposed for estimating the real pattern of the temporal location and spatial map of the lightning strikes. However, due to the complexity of lightning signals, providing accurate lightning maps estimation remains a challenging task. This paper presents a cross‐correlation wavelet‐domain‐based particle swarm optimization (CCWD‐PSO) technique for an accurate and robust representation of lightning mapping. The CCWD method provides an initial estimate of the lightning map, while the PSO attempts to optimize the trajectory of the lightning map by finding the optimal sliding window of the cross‐correlation. The technique was further enhanced through the introduction of a novel lightning event extraction method that enables faster processing of the lightning mapping. The CCWD‐PSO method was validated and verified using three narrow bipolar events (NBEs) flashes. The observed results demonstrate that this technique offers high accuracy in representing the real lightning mapping with low estimation errors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8634
Number of pages16
JournalApplied Sciences
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 2 Sept 2021


  • Interferometer
  • Lightning mapping
  • Particle swarm optimization
  • Wavelet cross‐correla-tion

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