Cross-cultural examination of the tripartite model in adults

Laura Philipp, Christi Washington, Mona Raouf, P. Peter Norton

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15 Citations (Scopus)


Clark and Watson's (1991) tripartite model is commonly viewed as the preferred model for examining the relationship between anxiety and depression. The tripartite model proposes that the overlap and distinction between anxiety and depression can be best understood along three dimensions: positive affect, negative affect, and physiological hyperarousal. Although the tripartite model has received support in a wide variety of samples, little has been done to examine whether the tripartite model holds cross-culturally. Using a highly diverse sample of undergraduate students (n = 923), this study set out to determine the generalizability of the tripartite model among students who identified themselves as African American/Black (non-Hispanic), Caucasian/White (non-Hispanic), Hispanic/Latino(a), and Asian. The results of the present study suggest that the model fits generally for each group, but the study did not find cross-group equivalence in the relationships between constructs. Possible reasons for the lack of cross-group equivalence, as well as limitations of this study, are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)221-232
Number of pages12
JournalCognitive Behaviour Therapy
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 5 Dec 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Anxiety
  • Culture
  • Depression
  • Tripartite model

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