Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus

Mark Thomas Edmonds, Anton Tadich, Alexandra Carvalho, Angelo Ziletti, Kane Michael O'Donnell, Steven P Koenig, David F Coker, Barbaros Ozyilmaz, Antonio H Castro Neto, Michael Fuhrer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

206 Citations (Scopus)


The stability of the surface of in situ cleaved black phosphorus crystals upon exposure to atmosphere is investigated with synchrotron-based photoelectron spectroscopy. After 2 days atmosphere exposure a stable subnanometer layer of primarily P2O5 forms at the surface. The work function increases by 0.1 eV from 3.9 eV for as-cleaved black phosphorus to 4.0 eV after formation of the 0.4 nm thick oxide, with phosphorus core levels shifting by <0.1 eV. The results indicate minimal charge transfer, suggesting that the oxide layer is suitable for passivation or as an interface layer for further dielectric deposition.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14557-14562
Number of pages6
JournalACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Issue number27
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • air stability
  • oxidation
  • black phosphorus
  • XPS

Cite this