Cramer-Rao bound for indoor visible light positioning using an aperture-based angular-diversity receiver

Heidi Steendam, Thomas Q. Wang, Jean Armstrong

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperResearchpeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we investigate the problem of indoor positioning using visible light systems. The directional detector array we use is comprised of a number of receiving elements, each consisting of an aperture and a photo diode, which are arranged to offer good angular diversity, and can be implemented within a compact receiver structure [1]. The receiving elements receive the light from a number of white LEDs, which are typically attached to the ceiling, and which act as anchors. In order to get an indication of the received signal strengths of the different LEDs, we average the received signals over time. The relative signal strengths in the different receiving elements do not only provide information on the distance between the LEDs and the detector array, but also about the angle-of-arrival of the light. By combining the information of the receiving elements, the position of the detector can be estimated. In order to assess the accuracy of positioning algorithms based on this approach, we derive the Cramer-Rao lower bound on the position accuracy. Assuming the white LEDs transmit an optical power of 1 W, and the time averaging is done over 1 millisecond, an accuracy of the order of a centimetre can be achieved.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2016 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC 2016)
Subtitle of host publicationKuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 22-27 May, 2016
EditorsStefano Bregni, Nelson Fonseca
Place of PublicationPiscataway, NJ
PublisherIEEE, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781479966646
ISBN (Print)9781479966653
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jul 2016
EventIEEE International Conference on Communications 2016: Communications for All Things - Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Duration: 22 May 201627 May 2016 (IEEE Conference Proceedings)


ConferenceIEEE International Conference on Communications 2016
Abbreviated titleICC 2016
CityKuala Lumpur
OtherConveniently located in the middle of South-East Asia, ICC2016 will feature a comprehensive Technical Program including 13 Symposia and a number of Tutorials and Workshops. IEEE ICC 2016 - Communications for All Things will also include an attractive Industry Forum & Exhibition Program featuring keynote speakers, business and industry panels, and vendor exhibits.
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