COVID-19 and beyond: understanding travel risk perception as a process

Siti Aqilah Jahari, I. Chieh Michelle Yang, Juliana Angeline French, Pervaiz Khalid Ahmed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


The unprecedented occurrence of COVID-19 highlights the susceptibility of the tourism industry to external threats. From flight cancellations to the closure of hospitality establishments, COVID-19 has greatly transformed the industry. Whilst a crisis such as a pandemic is not new in tourism and hospitality, the unique characteristics of COVID-19 have altered the risk perceptions associated with destinations. To date, the tourism risk literature has predominantly focused on typology of risks, at the expense of examining the process of how risk perceptions are formed. Following a social constructivist epistemological position, this conceptual paper proposes an integrative model that unpacks the underlying psychological process of risk perceptions and demonstrates how the framing process influences the safety perceptions and moulds the travel image of a destination in the COVID-19 context. The paper proposes several suggestions for future studies to consider when testing the conceptual model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)449-464
Number of pages16
JournalTourism Recreation Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • destination image
  • induced framing
  • organic framing
  • risk characteristics
  • Travel risk perception process

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