Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Non-Statin Lipid-Modifying Agents for Secondary Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Among Statin-Treated Patients in Thailand

Khachen Kongpakwattana, Zanfina Ademi, Thanaputt Chaiyasothi, Surakit Nathisuwan, Ella Zomer, Danny Liew, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Using non-statin lipid-modifying agents in combination with statin therapy provides additional benefits for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction, but their value for money has only been evaluated in high-income countries (HICs). Furthermore, studies mainly derive effectiveness data from a single trial or older meta-analyses. Objectives: Our study used data from the most recent network meta-analysis (NMA) and local parameters to assess the cost effectiveness of non-statin agents in statin-treated patients with a history of CVD. Methods: A published Markov model was adopted to investigate lifetime outcomes: (1) number of recurrent CVD events prevented, (2) quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained, (3) costs and (4) incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) and ezetimibe added to statin therapy. Event rates and effectiveness inputs were obtained from the NMA. Cost and utility data were gathered from published studies conducted in Thailand. A series of sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: Patients receiving PCSK9i and ezetimibe experienced fewer recurrent CVD events (number needed to treat [NNT] 17 and 30) and more QALYs (0.168 and 0.096 QALYs gained per person). However, under the societal perspective and at current acquisition costs in 2018, ICERs of both agents were $US1,223,995 and 27,361 per QALY gained, respectively. Based on threshold analyses, the costs need to be reduced by 97 and 85%, respectively, for PCSK9i and ezetimibe to be cost-effective. Conclusions: Despite the proven effectiveness of PCSK9i and ezetimibe, the costs of these agents need to reduce to a much greater extent than in HICs to be cost-effective in Thailand.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1277-1286
Number of pages10
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019

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