Background Osteoporosis is highly prevalent in the nursing home (NH) populations but medications that increase bone mineral density are used infrequently. Prior research finds few patient characteristics predict treatment. NH characteristics have been associated with prescription of some medications. We examined associations of NH-level characteristics with osteoporosis treatment in elderly patients admitted to a NH after a fracture. Method We conducted a cohort study of patients with hip, wrist and humeral fractures admitted to a NH in NJ. They were followed for 12 months from 1999 to 2004. Possible NH-level predictors of receiving osteoporosis treatment were assessed in mixed multivariable models to account for clustering within individual NHs.