Controlling endosomal escape using nanoparticle composition: Current progress and future perspectives

Kristofer Cupic, Josh Rennick, Angus P.R. Johnston, Georgina K. Such

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Polymer nanoparticles offer significant benefits for improving delivery of biological therapeutics such as DNA and proteins, as they allow the cargo to be protected until it is delivered to a target cell. However, there are still challenges with achieving efficient delivery to the optimal cellular region. One significant roadblock is escape of nanoparticles from within the endosomal/lysosomal compartments into the cytosol. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding endosomal escape of polymer nanoparticles. We also discuss the current progress on investigating how nanoparticle structure can control endosomal escape. It is important to understand the fundamental biological processes that govern endosomal escape in order to design more effective therapeutic delivery systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-223
Number of pages9
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019


  • endosomal escape
  • membrane interaction
  • nanoparticles
  • pH-responsive polymers
  • proton sponge
  • therapeutic delivery

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