Continuous bladder urinary oxygen tension as a new tool to monitor medullary oxygenation in the critically ill

Raymond T. Hu, Yugeesh R. Lankadeva, Fumitake Yanase, Eduardo A. Osawa, Roger G. Evans, Rinaldo Bellomo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleOtherpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in the critically ill. Inadequate renal medullary tissue oxygenation has been linked to its pathogenesis. Moreover, renal medullary tissue hypoxia can be detected before biochemical evidence of AKI in large mammalian models of critical illness. This justifies medullary hypoxia as a pathophysiological biomarker for early detection of impending AKI, thereby providing an opportunity to avert its evolution. Evidence from both animal and human studies supports the view that non-invasively measured bladder urinary oxygen tension (PuO2) can provide a reliable estimate of renal medullary tissue oxygen tension (tPO2), which can only be measured invasively. Furthermore, therapies that modify medullary tPO2 produce corresponding changes in bladder PuO2. Clinical studies have shown that bladder PuO2 correlates with cardiac output, and that it increases in response to elevated cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) flow and mean arterial pressure. Clinical observational studies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery involving CPB have shown that bladder PuO2 has prognostic value for subsequent AKI. Thus, continuous bladder PuO2 holds promise as a new clinical tool for monitoring the adequacy of renal medullary oxygenation, with its implications for the recognition and prevention of medullary hypoxia and thus AKI.

Original languageEnglish
Article number389
Number of pages9
JournalCritical Care
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Acute kidney injury
  • Critical care
  • Renal medullary hypoxia
  • Urine oximetry

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