Continuous and 4 h infusion of amphotericin B: A comparative study involving high-risk haematology patients

Anton Y. Peleg, M. L. Woods

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Abstract

Objectives: To assess whether a continuous infusion of amphotericin B (CI-AmB) is less nephrotoxic than a 4 h infusion in haematology patients with fever and neutropenia, including bone-marrow transplant recipients. Efficacy was assessed as a secondary end-point. Patients and methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study over a 2 year period. A total of 1073 haematology admissions were reviewed (98.3% complete) and 81 admissions were eligible for study entry; 39 received CI-AmB and 42 a 4 h infusion of AmB. Results: Renal impairment occurred significantly less frequently with CI-AmB compared with a 4 h infusion of AmB [10% versus 45%, respectively, odds ratio (OR) 0.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.5, P < 0.001]. The difference was maintained among allogeneic transplant recipients (P = 0.007) and patients receiving concurrent nephrotoxic drugs (P < 0.001). An AmB infusion rate of <0.08 mg/kg/h was associated with a significant reduction in renal impairment (P < 0.001). A difference in survival was observed between the continuous and 4 h infusion of AmB (95% versus 79%, respectively, OR 5.1; 95% CI 1.02-25.1, P = 0.03). Conclusions: CI-AmB appears to be significantly less nephrotoxic than 4 h infusion AmB in haematology patients with fever and neutropenia - including high-risk bone-marrow transplant recipients - without increasing mortality. An AmB infusion rate of < 0.08 mg/kg/h appears to be a safe threshold, associated with reduced renal impairment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)803-808
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Volume54
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2004
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Antifungal agents
  • Bone-marrow transplantation
  • Fever of unknown origin
  • Nephrotoxicity
  • Neutropenia

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