Contextual factors associated with poor sport spectator behaviour

Matthew Nicholson, Russell Hoye

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


This paper identifies a number of human, organizational and environmental factors associated with poor spectator behaviour at the community level of sport in Australia. In this context poor spectator behaviour in sport refers to verbal abuse, emotional abuse, vandalism, invasion of the playing arena, intimidation and threatened or actual violence at a sporting activity or event. The study involved the investigation of a number of contexts to identify the factors that create the environment for poor spectator behaviour (physical settings, stages of competition or games, competition levels, organizational strategies and policies), trigger the behaviour of perpetrators (coaches, spectators, players, parents, etc.), and explore the antecedents of the various types of poor spectator behaviour evident (foul language, verbal abuse, threats of physical abuse, actual physical abuse, vandalism, criticism of opposition players, or general unsporting behaviour). This paper also identifies a range of strategies used by sport organizations to prevent, manage or penalize poor spectator behaviour.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)94-105
Number of pages12
JournalManaging Leisure
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2005
Externally publishedYes

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