Psychophysical studies in humans indicate that the performance in various tasks is affected by contextual factors such as conflict level and error commission. It is generally believed that contextual factors influence the executive control processes and consequently modulate ongoing behaviour. Imaging studies suggest that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex play crucial roles in mediating these context-dependent adjustments in executive control of behaviour. However, the underlying neuronal processes are to a great extent unknown. Recent studies in non-human primates indicate great similarities in conflict-induced behavioural adjustments between humans and macaque monkeys. Animal models have provided the opportunity to conduct various detailed neurobiological techniques to reveal the neural underpinning of conflict-induced behavioural modulations. In this chapter, we review the latest findings in humans and non-human primate models regarding the neural substrate and underlying mechanisms of conflict-dependent executive control adjustments.