Content validation of a chrononutrition questionnaire for the general and shift work populations: A delphi study

Yan Yin Phoi, Maxine P. Bonham, Michelle Rogers, Jillian Dorrian, Alison M. Coates

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4 Citations (Scopus)


Unusual meal timing has been associated with a higher prevalence of chronic disease. Those at greater risk include shift workers and evening chronotypes. This study aimed to validate the content of a Chrononutrition Questionnaire for shift and non‐shift workers to identify temporal patterns of eating in relation to chronotype. Content validity was determined using a Delphi study of three rounds. Experts rated the relevance of, and provided feedback on, 46 items across seven outcomes: meal regularity, times of first eating occasion, last eating occasion, largest meal, main meals/snacks, wake, and sleep, which were edited in response. Items with greater than 70% consensus of relevance were accepted. Rounds one, two, and three had 28, 26, and 24 experts, respectively. Across three rounds, no outcomes were irrelevant, but seven were merged into three for ease of usage, and two sections were added for experts to rate and comment on. In the final round, all but one of 29 items achieved greater than 70% consensus of relevance with no further changes. The Chrononutrition Questionnaire was deemed relevant to experts in circadian biology and chrononutrition, and could represent a convenient tool to assess temporal patterns of eating in relation to chronotype in future studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4087
Number of pages18
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021


  • Chronotype
  • Circadian rhythm
  • Meal regularity
  • Meal timing
  • Nutrition assessment
  • Questionnaire development
  • Temporal meal patterns

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