Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a common initial presentation of cardiovascular disease, affecting up to 325 000 people in the United States each year.1 In a recent meta-analysis of >140 000 patients with OHCA, survival to hospital admission was 23.8%, and survival to hospital discharge was only 7.6%.2 In patients who initially achieve return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after OHCA, the significant subsequent morbidity and mortality are due largely to the cerebral and cardiac dysfunction that accompanies prolonged whole-body ischemia. This syndrome, called the post cardiac arrest syndrome, comprises anoxic brain injury, post cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction, systemic ischemia/reperfusion response, and persistent precipitating pathology3,4 (Table 1). The contribution of each of these components in an individual patient depends on various factors, including prearrest comorbidities, duration of the ischemic insult, and cause of the cardiac arrest. This review focuses on therapeutic strategies and recent developments in managing patients who are initially resuscitated from cardiac arrest.
- cardiopulmonary resuscitation
- heart arrest
- myocardial infarction