Construction planning through 4D BIM-based virtual reality for light steel framing building projects

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: The construction industry has actively attempted to tackle the low-productivity issues arising from inefficient construction planning. It is imperative to understand how construction practitioners perceive technology integration in construction planning in light of emerging technologies. This study intended to uncover unique experimental findings by integrating 4D-building information modelling (BIM) to virtual reality (VR) technology during construction planning among construction professionals at light steel framing (LSF) projects. 

Design/methodology/approach: The building industry participants were invited to provide inputs on two different construction planning methods: conventional and innovative methods. The conventional method involved the participants using traditional platforms such as 2D computer-aided design (CAD) and physical visualisation of paper-based construction drawings for the LSF assembly process with a Gantt Chart tool to complete construction planning-related tasks for the targeted project. Comparatively, participants are required to perform the same tasks using more innovative platforms like 4D-BIM in a VR environment. 

Findings: A Charrette Test Method was used to validate the findings, highlighting an improvement in usability (+10.3%), accuracy (+89.1%) and speed (+30%) using 4D BIM with VR compared to the conventional paper-based method. The findings are also validated by a paired t-test, which is supported by the rationality of the same findings. This study posits positive results for construction planning through the utilisation of modern practices and technologies. These findings are significant for the global construction industry facing low productivity issues, delays and certainty in terms of building delivery timelines due to poor construction planning. 

Originality/value: This new blend of technologies—combining 4D BIM and VR in industrialised construction projects—potentially directs future initiatives to drive the efficiency of construction planning in the building lifecycle. The interactive BIM-based virtual environment would purposefully transform construction planning practices in order to deliver modern and more certain building construction methods with a focus on prefabrication processes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1153-1173
Number of pages21
JournalSmart and Sustainable Built Environment
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Building information modelling
  • Construction education
  • Construction planning
  • Digital construction
  • Industrialised construction
  • Light steel framing
  • Virtual reality

Cite this