Construct validity and reliability of Malay language-Perception towards smoking questionnaire (BM-PTSQ) among secondary school adolescents

Lim Jia Hui, Lim Kuang Hock, Sumarni Mohd Ghazali, Heng Pei Pei, Cheong Yoon Ling, Lim Hui Li, Kee Chee Cheong, Goh Yee Lin, Ng Khuen Yen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


Introduction: Multitude studies have shown perception is an integral factor associated with smoking, However, no such tool was available in Malay language. In this study, we established a Bahasa Malaysia version of PTSQ (BM-PTSQ) and tested the validity and reliability among secondary school adolescents. Methods: The English version of PTSQ originally consists of 12 items. It was translated into Bahasa Malaysia and back-translated again into English to check for consistency. After face validity (face-to-face query) was determined among 20 secondary school adolescents, only 10 items were included in the survey. Construct validity was established from 407 school adolescents through random selection in the same locality. More than 60% of the respondents were female, a majority (67.3%) were schooling in rural areas. Then, the reliability of the questionnaire was determined with Cronbach’s alpha. Results: EFA has grouped PTSQ into two components, they are associated with either knowledge or attitude towards smoking. The variance and Cronbach’s alpha for the first and second component were 38.24% and 0.861 (7 items) and 21.62% and 0.661 (3 items) respectively. Conclusion: The PTSQ showed good validity and reliability for measurement of perception in smoking among school adolescents in Malaysia, thus this is a viable measurement tool. More importantly this study shows an urgent need to improve the smoking education among adolescents in Malaysia.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1486-1492
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Public Health Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 28 Feb 2022

Cite this