Constitutively active rhodopsin mutants causing night blindness are effectively phosphorylated by GRKs but differ in arrestin-1 binding

Sergey A. Vishnivetskiy, Martin K. Ostermaier, Ankita Singhal, Valerie Panneels, Kristoff T. Homan, Alisa Glukhova, Stephen G. Sligar, John J G Tesmer, Gebhard F X Schertler, Joerg Standfuss, Vsevolod V. Gurevich

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31 Citations (Scopus)


The effects of activating mutations associated with night blindness on the stoichiometry of rhodopsin interactions with G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 (GRK1) and arrestin-1 have not been reported. Here we show that the monomeric form of WT rhodopsin and its constitutively active mutants M257Y, G90D, and T94I, reconstituted into HDL particles are effectively phosphorylated by GRK1, as well as two more ubiquitously expressed subtypes, GRK2 and GRK5. All versions of arrestin-1 tested (WT, pre-activated, and constitutively monomeric mutants) bind to monomeric rhodopsin and show the same selectivity for different functional forms of rhodopsin as in native disc membranes. Rhodopsin phosphorylation by GRK1 and GRK2 promotes arrestin-1 binding to a comparable extent, whereas similar phosphorylation by GRK5 is less effective, suggesting that not all phosphorylation sites on rhodopsin are equivalent in promoting arrestin-1 binding. The binding of WT arrestin-1 to phospho-opsin is comparable to the binding to its preferred target, P-Rhaz.ast, suggesting that in photoreceptors arrestin-1 only dissociates after opsin regeneration with 11-cis-retinal, which converts phospho-opsin into inactive phospho-rhodopsin that has lower affinity for arrestin-1. Reduced binding of arrestin-1 to the phospho-opsin form of G90D mutant likely contributes to night blindness caused by this mutation in humans. 

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2155-2162
Number of pages8
JournalCellular Signalling
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Arrestin
  • GPCR
  • GRK
  • Monomer
  • Nanodiscs
  • Phosphorylation

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