Constitutive triglyceride turnover into the mesenteric lymph is unable to support efficient lymphatic transport of a biomimetic triglyceride prodrug

Sifei Han, LJ Hu, Tim Quach, Jamie Simpson, Natalie Trevaskis, Christopher J H Porter

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17 Citations (Scopus)


The triglyceride (TG) mimetic prodrug (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-mycophenoloyl glycerol, 2-MPA-TG) biochemically integrates into intestinal lipid transport and lipoprotein assembly pathways and thereby promotes the delivery of mycophenolic acid (MPA) into the lymphatic system. As lipoprotein (LP) formation occurs constitutively, even in the fasted state, the current study aimed to determine whether lymphatic transport of 2-MPA-TG was dependent on coadministered exogenous lipid. In vitro incubation of the prodrug with rat digestive fluid and in situ intestinal perfusion experiments revealed that hydrolysis and absorption of the prodrug were relatively unaffected by the quantity of lipid in formulations. In vivo studies in rats, however, showed that the lymphatic transport of TG and 2-MPA-TG was significantly higher following administration with higher quantities of lipid and that oleic acid (C18:1) was more effective in promoting prodrug transport than lipids with higher degrees of unsaturation. The recovery of 2-MPA-TG and TG in lymph correlated strongly (R2 = 0.99) and more than 97% of the prodrug was associated with chylomicrons. Inhibition of LP assembly by Pluronic L81 simultaneously inhibited the lymphatic transport of 2-MPA-TG and TG. In conclusion, although the TG mimetic prodrug effectively incorporates into TG resynthetic pathways, lipid coadministration is still required to support efficient lymphatic transport.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)786-796
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2016


  • intestinal absorption
  • lipids/lipoproteins
  • lymphatic transport
  • prodrugs
  • site-specific delivery

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