Considerations for ultra-endurance activities: part 1- nutrition

Ricardo J.S. Costa, Martin D. Hoffman, Trent Stellingwerff

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleOtherpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Ultra-endurance activities (≥ 4h) present unique challenges that, beyond fatigue, may be exacerbated by sub-optimal nutrition during periods of increased requirements and compromised gastrointestinal function. The causes of fatigue during ultra-endurance exercise are multi-factorial. However, mechanisms can potentially include central or peripheral fatigue, thermal stress, dehydration, and/or endogenous glycogen store depletion; of which optimising nutrition and hydration can partially attenuate. If exercise duration is long enough (e.g. ≥ 10h) and exercise intensity low enough (e.g. 45–60% of maximal oxygen uptake), it is bio-energetically plausible that ketogenic adaptation may enhance ultra-endurance performance, but this requires scientific substantiation. Conversely, the scientific literature has consistently demonstrated that daily dietary carbohydrates (3-12g/kg/day) and carbohydrate intake (30-110g/h) during ultra-endurance events can enhance performance at individually tolerable intake rates. Considering gastrointestinal symptoms are common in ultra-endurance activities, effective dietary prevention and management strategies may provide functional, histological, systemic, and symptomatic benefits. Taken together, a well-practiced and individualized fuelling approach is required to optimize performance in ultra-endurance events.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)166-181
Number of pages16
JournalResearch in Sports Medicine
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 3 Apr 2019


  • Carbohydrate
  • Energy
  • Epithelium
  • Gastrointestinal Symptoms
  • Ketogenic
  • Protein

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