Consciousness of social face: the development and validation of a scale measuring desire to gain face versus fear of losing face

Xin-An Zhang, Qing Cao, Nicholas Grigoriou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)


This article describes the development and validation of a scale that measures two distinct needs for individuals to manage their social face. Scale development process resulted in an 11-item Consciousness of Social Face (CSF) scale made up of the following two correlated dimensions: desire to gain face and fear of losing face. The two-factor correlated structure of CSF scale was stable across multiple samples of both students and non-students subjects. The construct validity of CSF scale, including convergent validity, discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity was also demonstrated by examining relationships with other personality or demographical variables.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)129-149
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Social Psychology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • gain face
  • lose face
  • scale development and validation
  • social face

Cite this