Confirmation of a Short-Time Expression for the Hydrograph Rising Limb of an Initially Dry Aquifer Using Laboratory Hillslope Outflow Experiments

Valentijn R. N. Pauwels, Remko Uijlenhoet

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2 Citations (Scopus)


The objective of this study is to assess the validity of a theoretical expression for the outflow from an initially dry aquifer subject to recharge. This equation states that, for small values of time, this outflow is proportional to the square root of time. Here we report on experiments performed with two laboratory hillslopes in the Wageningen rainfall simulator. Three different aquifer slopes were investigated with four replicates for each slope. The relations between the measured outflows and the square root of time exhibited very high coefficients of determination (all but one >0.9). The aquifer saturated hydraulic conductivity (k) and drainable porosity were determined using a base flow recession analysis, with k being consistent with soil physical laboratory measurements. The recharge rates obtained using the coefficient of the short-time expression and the steady state discharge were consistent as well. Overall, these results confirm the theoretical relationship between the aquifer outflow for the hydrograph rising limb and the square root of time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10,350-10,361
Number of pages12
JournalWater Resources Research
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2018


  • groundwater flow
  • modeling
  • recharge

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