Conceptual advances and evolving terminology in acute kidney disease

John A. Kellum, Claudio Ronco, Rinaldo Bellomo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleOtherpeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


Over the past decade, new insights into epidemiology, pathophysiology and biomarkers have modified our understanding of acute kidney dysfunction and damage, and their association with subsequent chronic kidney disease. The concept of acute kidney injury (AKI), which has relied on established but nonetheless flawed biomarkers of solute clearance (serum creatinine levels and urinary output), has been challenged by the identification of novel biomarkers of tubular stress and/or damage. The expression of some of these novel biomarkers precedes changes in conventional biomarkers or can increase their predictive power, and might therefore enhance the clinical accuracy of the definition of AKI. In addition, the need to consider AKI recurrence, duration and progression to chronic kidney disease within the clinical and epidemiological framework of AKI led to the emergence of the concept of acute kidney disease. New definitions of acute syndromes of kidney impairment and injury are needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)493-502
Number of pages10
JournalNature Reviews Nephrology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021
Externally publishedYes

Cite this