Conceptions of happiness and life satisfaction: An exploratory study in 14 national groups

Mohsen Joshanloo, Muhammad Rizwan, Imran Ahmed Khilji, Maria Cristina Ferreira, Wai Ching Poon, Suresh Sundaram, Lok Sang Ho, Victoria Wai Lan Yeung, Gyuseog Han, Jaechang Bae, Melikşah Demir, Mustapha Achoui, Joyce S. Pang, Ding Yu Jiang, Sanne M.A. Lamers, Yücel Turan, Zarina Kh Lepshokova, Tatiana Panyusheva, Amerkhanova Natalia, Ryosuke AsanoTasuku Igarashi, Saori Tsukamoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


This study examined the relationship between 4 conceptions of happiness and life satisfaction in a sample of 2715 university students across 14 national groups. The 4 conceptions were self-transcendence, self-directed hedonism, conservation, and self-enhancement, which emerged from a principal component analysis of a 19-item scale generated for the purpose of the present study. Results of multi-level modeling showed that self-transcendence and conservation predicted life satisfaction positively and significantly. In addition, we found that self-directed hedonism and self-enhancement interacted in their effects on life satisfaction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)145-148
Number of pages4
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2016


  • Conception of happiness
  • Culture
  • Happiness
  • Life satisfaction
  • Values

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