Computational Models of the Gastrointestinal Environment. 1. The Effect of Digestion on the Phase Behavior of Intestinal Fluids

Woldeamanuel A Birru, Dallas Warren, Stephen J. Headey, Hassan Benameur, Christopher Porter, Colin W. Pouton, David K. Chalmers

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Improved models of the gastrointestinal environment have great potential to assist the complex process of drug formulation. Molecular dynamics (MD) is a powerful method for investigating phase behavior at a molecular level. In this study we use multiple MD simulations to calculate phase diagrams for bile before and after digestion. In these computational models, undigested bile is represented by mixtures of palmitoyl-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC), sodium glycodeoxycholate (GDX), and water. Digested bile is modeled using a 1:1 mixture of oleic acid and palmitoylphosphatidylcholine (lysophosphatidylcholine, LPC), GDX, and water. The computational phase diagrams of undigested and digested bile are compared, and we describe the typical intermolecular interactions that occur between phospholipids and bile salts. The diffusion coefficients measured from MD simulation are compared to experimental diffusion data measured by DOSY-NMR, where we observe good qualitative agreement. In an additional set of simulations, the effect of different ionization states of oleic acid on micelle formation is investigated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)566-579
Number of pages14
JournalMolecular Pharmaceutics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 6 Mar 2017

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