Diabetes is associated with an exaggerated platelet thrombotic response at sites of vascular injury. Biomechanical forces regulate platelet activation, although the impact of diabetes on this process remains ill-defined. Using a biomembrane force probe (BFP), we demonstrate that compressive force activates integrin αIIbβ3 on discoid diabetic platelets, increasing its association rate with immobilized fibrinogen. This compressive force-induced integrin activation is calcium and PI 3-kinase dependent, resulting in enhanced integrin affinity maturation and exaggerated shear-dependent platelet adhesion. Analysis of discoid platelet aggregation in the mesenteric circulation of mice confirmed that diabetes leads to a marked enhancement in the formation and stability of discoid platelet aggregates, via a mechanism that is not inhibited by therapeutic doses of aspirin and clopidogrel, but is eliminated by PI 3-kinase inhibition. These studies demonstrate the existence of a compression force sensing mechanism linked to αIIbβ3 adhesive function that leads to a distinct prothrombotic phenotype in diabetes.