Comprehensive numerical analysis of a three-pass bead-in-slot weld and its critical validation using neutron and synchrotron diffraction residual stress measurements

O. Muránsky, M. C. Smith, P. J. Bendeich, T. M. Holden, V. Luzin, R. V. Martins, L. Edwards

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

70 Citations (Scopus)


The current paper presents a finite element simulation of the residual stress field associated with a three pass slot weld in an AISI 316LN austenitic stainless steel plate. The simulation is split into uncoupled thermal and mechanical analyses which enable a computationally less expensive solution. A dedicated welding heat source modelling tool is employed to calibrate the ellipsoidal Gaussian volumetric heat source by making use of extensive thermocouple measurements and metallographic analyses made during and after welding. The mechanical analysis employs the Lemaitre-Chaboche mixed hardening model. This captures the cyclic mechanical response which a material undergoes during the thermo-mechanical cycles imposed by the welding process. A close examination of the material behaviour at various locations in the sample during the welding process, clearly demonstrates the importance of defining the correct hardening and high temperature softening behaviour. The simulation is validated by two independent diffraction techniques. The well-established neutron diffraction technique and a very novel spiral slit X-ray synchrotron technique were used to measure the residual stress-strain field associated with the three-pass weld. The comparison between the model and the experiment reveals close agreement with no adjustable parameters and clearly validates the used modelling procedure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1045-1062
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Solids and Structures
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Finite element modelling
  • Neutron diffraction
  • Residual stress
  • Synchrotron diffraction
  • Welding process

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