Complementary ADF-STEM: a flexible approach to quantitative 4D-STEM

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Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has a broad range of applications in materials characterization, including real-space imaging, spectroscopy, and diffraction, at length scales from the micron to sub-Ångström. The recent development and adoption of high-speed, direct electron STEM detectors has enabled diffraction patterns to be collected at each probe position, generating four-dimensional STEM (4D-STEM) datasets and opening new imaging modalities. However, the limited pixel numbers in these detectors enforce a tradeoff between angular resolution and maximum collection angle. In this paper, we describe a straightforward method for quantifying 4D-STEM data by utilizing the full flux of the electron beam, including electrons scattered beyond the limits of the detector. This enables significantly increased experimental flexibility, including the synthesis of quantitative, high-contrast complementary annular dark field (cADF) STEM images from low-angle diffraction patterns whilst maintaining high angular resolution; as well as the optimization of electron dose and the more effective use of low dynamic range detectors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number113627
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • Annular Dark Field STEM
  • Four-Dimensional Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (4D-STEM)
  • Quantitative STEM

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