Comparison of organoids from menstrual fluid and hormone-treated endometrium: Novel tools for gynecological research

Caitlin E. Filby, Katherine A. Wyatt, Sally Mortlock, Fiona L. Cousins, Brett McKinnon, Kate E. Tyson, Grant W. Montgomery, Caroline E. Gargett

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Endometrial organoids (EMO) are an important tool for gynecological research but have been limited by generation from (1) invasively acquired tissues and thus advanced disease states and (2) from women who are not taking hormones, thus excluding 50% of the female reproductive-aged population. We sought to overcome these limitations by generating organoids from (1) menstrual fluid (MF; MFO) using a method that enables the concurrent isolation of menstrual fluid supernatant, stromal cells, and leukocytes and (2) from biopsies and hysterectomy samples from women taking hormonal medication (EMO-H). MF was collected in a menstrual cup for 4–6 h on day 2 of men-struation. Biopsies and hysterectomies were obtained during laparoscopic surgery. Organoids were generated from all sample types, with MFO and EMO-H showing similar cell proliferation rates, proportion and localization of the endometrial basalis epithelial marker, Stage Specific Embryonic Antigen-1 (SSEA-1), and gene expression profiles. Organoids from different disease states showed the moderate clustering of epithelial secretory and androgen receptor signaling genes. Thus, MFO and EMO-H are novel organoids that share similar features to EMO but with the advantage of (1) MFO being obtained non-invasively and (2) EMO-H being obtained from 50% of the women who are not currently being studied through standard methods. Thus, MFO and EMO-H are likely to prove to be invaluable tools for gynecological research, enabling the population-wide assessment of endometrial health and personalized medicine.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1314
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Personalized Medicine
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Adenomyosis
  • Disease modelling
  • Endometrial organoids
  • Endometriosis
  • Gynecology
  • Hormones
  • Human
  • Menstrual fluid

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