Comparison of Cardiac Output of Both 2-Dimensional and 3-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography With Transpulmonary Thermodilution During Cardiac Surgery

David Jeffrey Canty, Martin Kim, Ranjan Guha, Tuan Pham, Alistair G. Royse, Sandy Errey-Clarke, Julian A. Smith, Colin F. Royse

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Objectives: To compare agreement and variability of cardiac output measurement of 2-dimensional (2D) and 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) with thermodilution before and after bypass. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Two tertiary hospitals. Interventions: Cardiac output (CO) was measured simultaneously with thermodilution and TEE by multiplying either the left ventricular outflow tract area (LVOTA) or aortic valve area (AVA), the velocity-time integral (VTI) of flow at the same site, and heart rate. The LVOTA was calculated using diameter for 2D TEE. Planimetry was used for 3D TEE. The AVA was measured using planimetry. Participants: The study comprised 82 adult patients undergoing coronary or valve surgery. Measurements and Main Results: One hundred fifty-four complete sets of measurements were obtained (82 prebypass and 72 postbypass). All TEE methods had acceptable correlation and absence of proportional or fixed bias except for the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) VTI modal trace method, which had poor correlation and proportional but not fixed bias (regression coefficient [95% confidence interval], bias [percentage of mean CO]): 2D LVOT VTI modal trace 0.67 (0.54-0.80), –36.4%; 2D LVOT VTI outer edge trace 0.96 (0.80-1.12), –15.3%; 2D AVA planimetry 0.96 (0.75-1.18), +4.9%; 3D LVOT area planimetry 1.18 (0.96-1.41), +0.8%; 3D AVA planimetry 1.20 (0.93-1.46), +0.4%. All TEE methods had wide levels of agreement compared with thermodilution (–3.94 to +0.23 L/min, –2.83 to +1.28 L/min, –2.23 to +2.73 L/min, –2.35 to +2.42 L/min, and –2.57 to +2.61 L/min, respectively). Measurement variability was superior for all TEE methods compared with thermodilution before but not after bypass. Conclusions: Although limits of agreement of CO measurement with 3D TEE and thermodilution are wide, 2D planimetry of the AVA and continuous wave Doppler may be substituted for thermodilution before and after bypass.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)77-86
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020


  • cardiac output
  • cardiac surgery
  • monitoring
  • pulmonary artery thermodilution
  • transesophageal echocardiography

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