Comparing paraffined and deparaffinized breast cancer tissue samples and an analysis of Raman spectroscopy and infrared methods

Joanna Depciuch, Ewa Kaznowska, K. Szmuc, Izabela Zawlik, M. Cholewa, P. Heraud, Jozef Cebulski

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27 Citations (Scopus)


Breast cancer makes up a quarter of all cancer in women, which is why research into new diagnostic methods and sample preparations need to be developed at an accelerated pace. Researchers are looking for diagnostic tools to detect when an individual has cancer cells and use that information to see what measurements and approaches can be used to take further diagnostic steps. The most common method of sample preparation is the imbibing of tumor tissue in paraffin, which can produce a background for spectroscopic measurements in the range of 500-3500 cm-1. In this study we demonstrated that proper preparation of paraffin-embedded specimens and the measurement methodology can eliminate paraffin vibration, as was done in the work Depciuch et al. 2015. Thanks to this spectroscopic technique there may become a reliable and accurate method of diagnosing breast cancer based on the evidence found from the prepared samples. The study compared the results obtained through Raman spectroscopy and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) measurements of healthy and cancerous breast tissues that were either embedded in paraffin or deparaffinized. The resulting spectrum and accurate analysis led to the conclusion that the appropriate measurement of the background and the elimination of peaks from the paraffin had the greatest impact on the reliability of results. Furthermore, after the accurate, detailed studies FTIR and Raman spectroscopy on samples of breast tissue that were deparaffinized or embedded in paraffin, including a complete analysis of the peak after transformation Kramers-Kröning (KK), it was found that sample preparation did not affect the result obtained by measuring the reflectance in the mid-infrared range, and that this only had a minimal effect relating to the intensity obtained by the measurement of the Raman peak. Only in special cases, when Raman spectroscopic methods are used for research to find the peculiarities of the spectra, are deparaffinization recommended, in order to attain more detailed results that could be crucial in understanding the process of carcinogenesis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)217-226
Number of pages10
JournalInfrared Physics and Technology
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2016


  • Breast cancer
  • Chemotherapy
  • Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy
  • Methods
  • Raman spectroscopy

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