Comparative in vitro toll-like receptor ligand induced cytokine profiles of Toda and Murrah buffaloes-Identification of tumour necrosis factor alpha promoter polymorphism

A. R. Vignesh, G. Dhinakar Raj, S. Dhanasekaran, K. G. Tirumurugaan, A. Raja

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The objective of this study was to assess cytokine production upon activation of pattern recognition receptors responsible for sensing bacterial and viral pathogen associated molecular patterns in two genetically diverse buffalo breeds, Toda and Murrah. A very limited molecular-epidemiological analysis showed a higher prevalence of Anaplasma and Theileria in Murrah than Toda buffaloes. Toda buffalo peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) produced significantly higher levels of IFN γ and/or TNF α mRNAs in response to peptidoglycan, poly I:C, lipopolysaccharide, imiquimod and CpG. Flagellin stimulation did not result in any significant differences in the expression levels of the cytokines tested between these breeds. The levels of ligand induced IFN γ and TNF α mRNA and proteins also correlated except when induced with CpG. The proximal promoter region of TNF α across these two breeds were also sequenced to detect SNPs and promoter assay performed to determine their role in altering the transcriptional activity. Two polymorphisms were identified at -737 (T/A) and -1092 (G/T) positions in Toda buffalo TNF α promoter and promoter assay revealed higher transcription activity in Toda buffalos than in Murrah. This suggests that disease tolerance of these buffalo breeds could be due to the differences in their cytokine transcription levels in response to the respective PAMPs that may be at least in part determined by polymorphisms in the cytokine promoter regions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)189-197
Number of pages9
JournalVeterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Cytokines
  • Murrah
  • Quantitative real time PCR
  • TLR ligands
  • Toda
  • Toll like receptor

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