Compact and efficient encodings for planning in factored state and action spaces with learned Binarized Neural Network transition models

Buser Say, Scott Sanner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we leverage the efficiency of Binarized Neural Networks (BNNs) to learn complex state transition models of planning domains with discretized factored state and action spaces. In order to directly exploit this transition structure for planning, we present two novel compilations of the learned factored planning problem with BNNs based on reductions to Weighted Partial Maximum Boolean Satisfiability (FD-SAT-Plan+) as well as Binary Linear Programming (FD-BLP-Plan+). Theoretically, we show that our SAT-based Bi-Directional Neuron Activation Encoding is asymptotically the most compact encoding relative to the current literature and supports Unit Propagation (UP) – an important property that facilitates efficiency in SAT solvers. Experimentally, we validate the computational efficiency of our Bi-Directional Neuron Activation Encoding in comparison to an existing neuron activation encoding and demonstrate the ability to learn complex transition models with BNNs. We test the runtime efficiency of both FD-SAT-Plan+ and FD-BLP-Plan+ on the learned factored planning problem showing that FD-SAT-Plan+ scales better with increasing BNN size and complexity. Finally, we present a finite-time incremental constraint generation algorithm based on generalized landmark constraints to improve the planning accuracy of our encodings through simulated or real-world interaction.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103291
Number of pages21
JournalArtificial Intelligence
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Binarized Neural Networks
  • Binary Linear Programming
  • Data-driven planning
  • Weighted Partial Maximum Boolean Satisfiability

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